Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Heracleum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit hidden Epermeniidae Epermenia devotella
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales incertae sedis Mycocentrospora acerina
leaf leaf spot Massarinaceae Stagonospora heraclei
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta levistici
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta stevenii
leaf leaf spot Cladosporiaceae Cladosporium elegans
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria heraclei
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria heracleicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Fusoidiella depressa
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella chaerophylli
stem borer Curculionidae Lixus nordmanni
stem borer Chloropidae Lasiambia albidipennis
stem borer Chloropidae Lasiambia albidipennis
leaf leaf spot Dothideales Filiella pastinacae
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant doubtful Pentatomidae Eurydema dominulus
leaf vagrant doubtful Pentatomidae Graphosoma melanoxanthum
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Graphosoma italicum
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops basalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops campestris
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops kalmii
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus coecus
root borer Curculionidae Liparus glabrirostris
root borer Curculionidae Liparus germanus
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia walteri
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia icterica
stem borer doubtful Cerambycidae Agapanthia cardui
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia villosoviridescens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia contigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euplexia lucipara
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa pulchrina
leaf vagrant Erebidae Rhyparia purpurata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eucarta amethystina
flower hidden Crambidae Sitochroa palealis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia zonaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia selinata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia trisignaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia absinthiata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subfuscata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia virgaureata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia tripunctaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alcis repandata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
flower vagrant Geometridae Chloroclystis v-ata
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anthomyza gracilis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx aurata
root vagrant Curculionidae Liophloeus tessulatus
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia pagana
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oreina alpestris
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oreina ganglbaueri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Phaedon tumidulus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo moniliata
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo mesomela
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix angelicella
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix ciliella
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix heracliana
flower hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix caucasiella
unknown unknown Tortricidae Aethes kasyi
flower hidden Epermeniidae Phaulernis dentella
flower hidden Epermeniidae Phaulernis fulviguttella
leaf hidden Unknown code! Epermeniidae Epermenia illigerella
flower borer Epermeniidae Epermenia farreni
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria radiella
flower hidden Tortricidae Epinotia thapsiana
leaf hidden Elachistidae Depressaria discipunctella
leaf hidden Elachistidae Depressaria sordidatella
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria heydenii
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria depressana
fruit borer Tortricidae Pammene aurana
flower hidden Tortricidae Pammene gallicana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
fruit vagrant Tortricidae Aethes dilucidana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia heraclei
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia illustrata
root borer larva Curculionidae Calosirus apicalis
stem borer larva doubtful Curculionidae Lixus bardanae
stem miner Cecidomyiidae Resseliella syringogenea
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf gall doubtful Triozidae Trioza apicalis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyadaphis foeniculi
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza chaerophylli
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza nigrissima
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza limata
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza heracleana
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza angeliciphaga
stem borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heracleivora
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia bohemica
fruit borer Agromyzidae Liriomyza lutea
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
systemic gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus anthrisci
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Kiefferia pericarpiicola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia nicolayi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera carophila
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe heraclei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula braunii
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara nivea
leaf gall Aphididae Paramyzus heraclei
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia heraclei
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis heraclei
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphridium umbelliferarum
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomyces macrosporus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza heraclei
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza angelicae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza heracleana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza pastinacae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza sphondyliivora
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spondylii
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya vanduzeei
leaf miner Epermeniidae Epermenia chaerophyllella
leaf miner Tephritidae Cryptaciura rotundiventris
leaf miner Tephritidae Euleia heraclei
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia nitidula
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Uromyces graminis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia heraclei
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia corteyi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Semiaphis sphondylii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Dysaphis lauberti
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus heraclei
leaf vagrant Triozidae Trioza anthrisci
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera stelteri
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia cylindrica
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Lixus iridis
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis heraclei
root collar vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anuraphis subterranea
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Dysaphis crataegi
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis brohmeri
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis newskyi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella archangelicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella aegopodii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella theobaldi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis grosmannae
leaf vagrant summer generation main Aphididae Cavariella pastinacae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.i.2023