organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lozotaenia forsterana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria hederae
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
fruit borer Tortricidae Lobesia botrana
fruit borer Tortricidae Eupoecilia ambiguella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus immaculatus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Tetraleurodes hederae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurocanthus spiniferus
leaf scale Coccidae Protopulvinaria pyriformis
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
leaf scale Coccidae Lichtensia viburni
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem scale rarely Diaspididae Aulacaspis rosae
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
stem scale Asterolecaniidae Planchonia fimbriata
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria regalis
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria floccifera
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura kiefferi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Boeremia hedericola
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis hederae
stem scale Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus aceris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 18.xi.2019