Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Hedera

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantdoubtfulGeometridaeIdaea camparia
leafvagrantGeometridaeOurapteryx sambucaria
root collarhiddenCrambidaeDuponchelia fovealis
leafvagrantGeometridaeAcasis viretata
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes rhomboidaria
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes ilicaria
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantTingidaeDerephysia foliacea
leafvagrantCicadellidaePhlogotettix cyclops
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEmpoasca fabalis
stemvagrantIssidaeIssus muscaeformis
stemvagrantadultAphrophoridaeAphrophora alni
leafvagrantIssidaeAplos simplex
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEmpoasca decipiens
leafvagrantCicadellidaeSynophropsis lauri
leafvagrantIssidaeIssus coleoptratus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeOrientus ishidae
stemborerCurculionidaeKissophagus hederae
stemborerCurculionidaeKissophagus novaki
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus ulmi
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia kissophila
leafvagrantThripidaeDendrothrips eastopi
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus hedericola
rootvagrantCurculionidaeLiophloeus tessulatus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeOomorphus concolor
leafvagrantTortricidaeCacoecimorpha pronubana
stemscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus britannicus
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis dumicolana
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis consimilana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis pallidana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura hebenstreitella
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis dumetana
leafhiddenTortricidaeLozotaenia forsterana
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria hederae
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
fruitborerTortricidaeLobesia botrana
fruitborerTortricidaeEupoecilia ambiguella
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus immaculatus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTetraleurodes hederae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurocanthus spiniferus
leafscaleCoccidaeProtopulvinaria pyriformis
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
leafscaleCoccidaeLichtensia viburni
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemscalerarelyDiaspididaeAulacaspis rosae
stemscaleAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia fimbriata
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria regalis
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura kiefferi
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafleaf spotPleosporalesBoeremia hedericola
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis hederae
stemscaleAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus aceris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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