Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ilex

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta haynaldii
leaf leaf spot doubtful Pezizomycotina incertae sedis Leptothyrium ilicinum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pogonocherus hispidulus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Aegosoma scabricorne
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Grammoptera ruficornis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Anaglyptus gibbosus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leiopus nebulosus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius
stem scale Diaspididae Dynaspidiotus britannicus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Oligonychus ilicis
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
fruit vagrant Eriophyidae Cecidophyopsis verilicis
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus armadillo
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epiphyas postvittana
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus dictyospermi
root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum
stem kanker Nectriaceae Nectria cinnabarina
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Sphaerella ilicis
leaf leaf spot Helotiales incertae sedis Cylindrosporium pollaccii
leaf leaf spot Glomerellaceae Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
leaf leaf spot Sporocadaceae Pestalotiopsis ilicis
leaf leaf spot Dermateaceae Neofabraea vagabunda
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriaceae Fusicoccum ilicellum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria ilicifolia
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria massalongiana
leaf leaf spot Nectriaceae Calonectria lauri
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta haynaldii
stem kanker Nectriaceae Thyronectria aquifolii
stem kanker Nectriaceae Thyronectria ilicicola
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta concentrica
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta philoprina
leaf vagrant Acanthosomatidae Elasmostethus interstinctus
leaf vagrant rarely Acanthosomatidae Elasmucha grisea
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Diptacus swensoni
stem borer Cossidae Zeuzera pyrina
leaf vagrant Acanthosomatidae Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Mustha spinosula
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus aurifer
leaf scale Coccidae Lichtensia viburni
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus apenninus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Sphinx ligustri
leaf scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus peruvianus
stem borer Cerambycidae Trichoferus campestris
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
scale Diaspididae Aonidiella lauretorum
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes japonicus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Acasis viretata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Menophra abruptaria
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
leaf vagrant Issidae Issus coleoptratus
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
stem borer Curculionidae Trypodendron domesticum
leaf vagrant Thripidae Scirtothrips inermis
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Apterygothrips neolongiceps
leaf vagrant Thripidae Scirtothrips inermis
stem gall Eriococcidae Rhizococcus devoniensis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Rhopobota naevana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Diptacus ilicis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaricalus hydrophylli
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleuroclava similis
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza jucunda
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria regalis
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria floccifera
stem scale rarely Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
leaf down doubtful Erysiphales Erysiphe nemopanthi
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis ilicis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza ilicis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia ilicis
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
leaf bud vagrant rarely Aphididae Illinoia lambersi
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Macrosiphum rosae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis ilicis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.viii.2023