Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ilex aquifolium


organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorEulophidaeChrysocharis gemma
PteromalidaeSphegigaster pallicornis
predatorPteromalidaeCyrtogaster vulgaris
predatorBraconidaePhaedrotoma pulchriceps
predatorPteromalidaeMesopolobus mediterraneus
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus swensoni
stemborerCossidaeZeuzera pyrina
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus apenninus
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx ligustri
leafscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus peruvianus
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes japonicus
leafvagrantGeometridaeAcasis viretata
leafvagrantGeometridaeMenophra abruptaria
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantIssidaeIssus coleoptratus
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron domesticum
leafhiddenTortricidaeRhopobota naevana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus ilicis
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAcaricalus hydrophylli
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia afer
stemvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMacrosiphum rosae
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza jucunda
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria regalis
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis aurantii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafdowndoubtfulErysiphalesErysiphe nemopanthi
leafgallAphididaeAphis ilicis
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza ilicis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia ilicis
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
leaf budvagrantrarelyAphididaeIllinoia lambersi
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis ilicis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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