organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Rhopobota naevana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Diptacus ilicis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaricalus hydrophylli
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Macrosiphum rosae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza jucunda
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria regalis
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria floccifera
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf down doubtful Erysiphales Erysiphe nemopanthi
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis ilicis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza ilicis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia ilicis
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
leaf bud vagrant rarely Aphididae Illinoia lambersi
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis ilicis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 19.i.2020