Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Artemisia mugwort, wormwood

Incl. Seriphidium.

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Artemisia by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine centered over the midrib => 2

1b mine independent of the midrib => 4

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a mine more or less dark brownish, with a dark centre; feeding lines very conspicuous => 3

2b mine light brown or whitish, without a dark centre; not visible feeding lines: Liriomyza strigata

3a fully developed mine a broad, often branching, corridor; frass dispersed: Trypeta zoe

3b fully developed mine a short, lobed, blotch with a dark centre (accumulation of frass): Trypeta artemisiae

4a clear corridor => 5

4b fleck mine, either on the leaf blade, or forming a translucent zone along the leaf margin => 11

4c mine different => 30

5a short, narrow corridor, ending upon a thick vein: Ophiomyia curvipalpis

5b corridor not so => 6

6a corridor very narrow, with much frass in a central line; larva with distinct head => 24

6b corridor wider, frass at either side; larva a maggot => 7

7a puparium in the mine: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

7b pupation external => 8

8a larva white, rear spiraculum with 18-20 papillae; corridor long (up to 8 cm), starting lower-surface : Phytomyza artemisivora

8b larva yellow, rear spiraculum with 3 papillae; corridor shorter, entirely upper-surface => 9

9a on Artemisia campestris: Liriomyza dracunculi

9b on Artemisia vulgaris => 10

10a corridor short and wide, confined to the tip of a leaf segment; larva: the three papillae of the rear spiraculum of equal size: Liriomyza artemisicola

10b corridor longer and more slender, descending along the leaf margin or the midrib down to the centre of the leaf; the three papillae of the rear spiraculum of unequal size: Liriomyza demeijerei

11a many small fleck mines on a leaf; hole relatively large, sometimes involving the leaf margin; larva either free or in a helicoidal case => 12

11b just one or a few fleck mines in a leaf; larva in a tubular case or in the remnants of a floret => 13

12a hole irregular in shape, in the blade; larva in a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella

12b hole either round, or involving the leaf margin; on the leaves also very narrow corridor mines may run, with a central frass line => 24

13a seed case: Coleophora artemisicolella

13b no seed case => 14

14a sheath case => 15

14b tubular silken case => 18

15a case 12-15 mm, mouth angle c. 45°; A. campestris: Coleophora caelebipennella

15b case smaller, mouth angle 0-25° => 16

16a mouth angle c. 0°, case lies flat on the leaf; A. campestris: Coleophora vibicigerella

16b mouth angle 20-25°, case obliquely on the leaf => 17

17a case ventrally with a deep keel; A. campestris, vulgaris: Coleophora ditella

17b ventral keel only weak; A. absinthium, alba: Coleophora partitella

18a case hairy or felty => 19

18b case smooth => 22

18c case entirely covered with minute sand grains: Coleophora treskaensis

19a case ≥ 10 mm => 20

19b case ≤ 7 mm => 21

20a mouth angle 40-45°; A. campestris, vulgaris: Coleophora succursella

20b mouth angle c. 70°; A. campestris: Coleophora directella

21a mouth angle c. 0°; A. caerulescens subsp. gallica: Coleophora albicella

21b mouth angle 15-30°; A. maritima: Coleophora albicans

22a case c. 20 mm long, two-valved; A. campestris: Coleophora solenella

22b case ≤ 12 mm, three-valved => 23

23a mouth angle c. 30°; A. absinthium, vulgaris: Coleophora trochilella

23b mouth angle c. 45°; A. alba, caerulescens subsp. gallica, campestris, campestris subsp. maritima: Coleophora settarii and C. thuneri

24a larva without feet: Pseudorchestes smreczynskii.

24b larven with thoracic feet: Bucculatrix spp. All species make fleck mines, either many small round mines in the leaf blade, or ribbon-like translucent zones along the leaf margin, where the larva has penetrated the leaf by a slit made in the margin. In many, perhaps all, species this stage is preceded by one in which the larva makes a quite long and narrow corridor with much frass in a central line. After the fleck mine stage the larvae of some species live entire free on the leaf, causing window feeding. Many of the species living on Artemisia are narrowly monophagous. The biology of most species is known insufficiently or not at all, and the taxonomy is in a confused state. => 25

25a on A. absinthium: Bucculatrix absinthii

25b on A. alba: Bucculatrix benacicolella

25c on A. alpina, umbelliformis: Bucculatrix fatigatella

25d on A. campestris, vulgaris => 26

25e on A. herba-alba: Bucculatrix herbalbella

25f on A. laciniata: Bucculatrix laciniatella

25g on A. maritima => 29

25h on A. thuscula: Bucculatrix canariensis

26a on A. vulgaris => 27

26b on A. campestris => 28

27a species of NW and Central Europe: Bucculatrix noltei

27b species of southern Spain: Bucculatrix andalusica

27c species of the Alps and Scandinavia: Bucculatrix ratisbonensis

28a species of the Alps: Bucculatrix atagina, Bucculatrix ratisbonensis

28b species of the European lowland: Bucculatrix artemisiella

29a species of the Atlantic sea coast: Bucculatrix diffusella

29b species of Central European halophytic vegetations: Bucculatrix pannonica

30a mine a blotch, containing abundant amounts of frass; larvae mine all their life => 31

30b mine either a blotch, or very irregular in shape; little or no frass; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 34

31a upper surface of the blotch strongly puckered, blister-like; colour with orange tinges; larva with clear head: Leucospilapteryx omissella

32b mine flat, whitish or greenish; larva a maggot => 33

33a mine whitish, without a dark centre: Calycomyza artemisiae

33b mine greenish, with a dark centre (actually a ringed, thereby killed, part of the leaf): Agromyza rufipes

34a mines small, very irregular in shape => 35

34b mines larger, more regular, often resembling a tentiform mine => 37

35a larva: pinacula colourless (although the base of the setae themselves is black): C. incertana

35b pinacula black => 36

36a larva: below/behind the anus a black chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

36b no anal comb present: Cnephasia stephensiana

37a larva: more or less reddish brown, with reddish length lines => 38

37b not reddish brown, no reddish length lines => 39

38a larva: head and pronotum light brown; lowland species: Scrobipalpa proclivella

38b head and pronotum dark; alpine species: Scrobipalpa gallicella

39a larva: uniformly light grey: Scrobipalpula psilella

39b green, with dark green length lines: Sophronia humerella

Not included in the key: Bucculatrix orophilella; Coleophora absinthivora, campestriphaga, jynxella, pennella (xenophagy), ribasella, uralensis; Liriomyza bryoniae, trifolii, yasumatsui; Scrobipalpa acuminatella, disjectella, halonella (improbable); Scrobipalpula ramosella.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 29.ii.2020