Cotula buttonweed, water buttons
Dichotomous table for leafminers
1a puparium in the leaf in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae
1b pupation after the the larva has left the mine through a semicircular exit slit => 2
1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species
2a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera
2b larva: rear spiraculum with ca 18 papillae: Phytomyza pullula
Phytomyza permutata perhaps lives on C. turbinata; its biology is unknown. Phytomyza scotica has been observed on the Canary Islands on Cotula australis; the mine was not described.