Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Achillea millefolium

yarrow

synonym: Achillea borealis, lanulosa, magna

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root scale Eriococcidae Anophococcus cingulatus
root scale Pseudococcidae Heliococcus radicicola
root scale Pseudococcidae Pelionella tritubulata
leaf scale doubtful Eriococcidae Anophococcus pseudinsignis
unknown unknown adult Curculionidae Cycloderes pilosulus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Romualdius scaber
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips anthemidinus
unknown borer larva doubtful Curculionidae Gymnetron stimulosum
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus ligneus
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips leucanthemi
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara aulica
predator Phlaeothripidae Xylaplothrips fuliginosus
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips hawaiiensis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips brevicornis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips setiger
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips angusticornis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower hidden Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips propinquus
stem vagrant adult Dictyopharidae Dictyophara europaea
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips pillichi
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips tritici
leaf vagrant Aphididae Metopeurum millefolii
flower hidden Phalacridae Olibrus millefolii
stem borer Mordellidae Mordellistena bicoloripilosa
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina interstincta
leaf hidden Cosmopterigidae Isidiella nickerlii
leaf vagrant Gelechiidae Sophronia sicariellus
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lignyoptera fumidaria
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia achilleae-millefolii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta doronici
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta sonchi
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora achilleae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Pseudocercosporella achilleae-millefolii
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Ortholomus punctipennis
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius senecionis
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Stictopleurus punctatonervosus
root vagrant Cydnidae Microporus nigrita
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Metopoplax origani
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Stygnocoris rusticus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus saltator
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus norwegicus
leaf vagrant Miridae Apolygus lucorum
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris varipes
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Metopoplax ditomoides
flower vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus molliculus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus gemellatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Brachycoleus decolor
leaf vagrant Miridae Brachycoleus lineellus
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris roseomaculatus
flower vagrant Miridae Leptopterna euxinia
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Notostira poppiusi
leaf vagrant Miridae Notostira erratica
leaf vagrant Miridae Oncotylus punctipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Oncotylus pyrethri
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus coriaceus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus marginalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Paredrocoris pectoralis
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus cognatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema laevigata
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Salicarus roseri
flower vagrant Tortricidae Endothenia marginana
flower vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus tanaceti
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Stictopleurus abutilon
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus maritimus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Barypeithes trichopterus
root vagrant Curculionidae Strophosoma faber
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Foucartia ptochioides
leaf vagrant adult doubtful Curculionidae Phyllobius brevis
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius virideaeris
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia contigua
leaf pustule Pucciniales Puccinia achilleae
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis achilleae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia c-nigrum
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza achilleacaulis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Actebia praecox
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthiola leucaspis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Pachetra sagittigera
root collar borer doubtful Cerambycidae Plagionotus floralis
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia pustulata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lucifuga
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia tanaceti
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta euphorbiae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Macdunnoughia confusa
leaf vagrant Erebidae Arctia caja
leaf vagrant Erebidae Diacrisia sannio
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dicallomera fascelina
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula ornata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia zonaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ectropis crepuscularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Perconia strigillaria
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma castrensis
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma franconica
leaf vagrant Brahmaeidae Lemonia dumi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Idaea luteolaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia virgaureata
leaf vagrant Erebidae Arctia villica
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia succenturiata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia absinthiata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia vulgata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia icterata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia millefoliata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia orphnata
flower vagrant Geometridae Chloroclystis v-ata
flower vagrant Geometridae Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
flower vagrant Geometridae Idaea nigra
flower vagrant Geometridae Idaea charitata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula immorata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Thetidia smaragdaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Thalera fimbrialis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Microplontus millefolii
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ophiola transversa
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx tenella
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Hephathus achilleae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Chlorita paolii
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Chlorita paolii
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora vibicigerella
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus ochroleucus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Neoglanis tessellatus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Neoglanis elegans
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Neoglanis intermedius
root borer larva Curculionidae Adosomus roridus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus succineus
root collar borer larva Apionidae Diplapion stolidum
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips propinquus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips trehernei
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida inquinata
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida denticollis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida sanguinolenta
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida sanguinosa
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida prasina
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus absynthii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus noricus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina staphylaea
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina analis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina marginata
leaf hidden Crambidae Loxostege turbidalis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina asclepiadis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Galeruca tanaceti
leaf scale Eriococcidae Rhizococcus erinaceus
root collar scale Eriococcidae Rhizococcus munroi
leaf hidden Crambidae Loxostege turbidalis
root collar borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha ligulana
stem vagrant Ortheziidae Orthezia urticae
root vagrant Gelechiidae Pyncostola bohemiella
stem borer Gelechiidae Isophrictis corsicella
leaf hidden Elachistidae Depressaria olerella
leaf hidden Elachistidae Depressaria silesiaca
flower hidden Pyralidae Phycitodes saxicola
stem borer Tortricidae Cochylimorpha elongana
fruit borer doubtful Tortricidae Pammene fasciana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha alpestrana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha vancouverana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha petiverella
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha sequana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha agilana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha plumbana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha plumbagana
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Choristoneura diversana
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia pasiuana
root borer doubtful Tortricidae Cochylidia richteriana
flower hidden Tortricidae Thiodia citrana
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha incognitana
flower hidden Tortricidae Eupoecilia angustana
fruit hidden Tortricidae Aethes smeathmanniana
flower hidden Tortricidae Aethes margaritana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Paraphytoptus achilleae
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
stem borer younger larva Tortricidae Epiblema graphana
root borer older larva Tortricidae Epiblema graphana
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vernalis
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus spurnyi
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus barnevillei
root borer larva Curculionidae Coryssomerus capucinus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Microplontus triangulum
root borer larva Curculionidae Cyphocleonus dealbatus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Pseudostyphlus pillumus
leaf bud borer Pterophoridae Gillmeria pallidactyla
root collar vagrant Aphididae Microsiphum nudum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis oligommata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
flower gall doubtful Tephritidae Tephritis nigricauda
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza oligophaga
leaf vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora carelica
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia spenceri
unknown unknown Agromyzidae Liriomyza hampsteadensis
flower vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora quadristraminella
fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora argentula
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Ozirhincus millefolii
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis achilleae
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis dioscurea
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Rhopalomyia ptarmicae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria achilleae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria kiefferi
flower gall Tephritidae Eurasimona stigma
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Rhopalomyia millefolii
leaf down rarely Erysiphales Golovinomyces artemisiae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces macrocarpus
leaf down Peronosporales Paraperonospora leptosperma
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Didymaria matricariae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma achilleae
leaf gall Anguinidae Subanguina millefolii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera francoisi
leaf gall Psyllidae Craspedolepta nervosa
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza abdominalis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza ptarmicae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza achilleae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza pullula
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Phytomyza tanaceti
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix clavenae
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix cristatella
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix fatigatella
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix humiliella
leaf miner doubtful Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix latviaella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora caelebipennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ditella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora expressella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora follicularis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora gardesanella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora millefolii
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora partitella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ptarmicia
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora succursella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trochilella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Sophronia humerella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia millefolii
leaf vagrant rarely Aphididae Metopeurum fuscoviride
leaf vagrant Aphididae Coloradoa achilleae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus achilleae
stem borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia curvipalpis
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Pyralidae Phycitodes maritima
stem gall Tephritidae Campiglossa misella
root collar gall Tephritidae Dithryca guttularis
root collar gall Tephritidae Oxyna flavipennis
root collar gall doubtful Tephritidae Oxyna nebulosa
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis vandergooti
flower miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza flavopicta
leaf vagrant Aphididae Pleotrichophorus duponti
root collar vagrant spring generation doubtful Aphididae Acaudinum longisetosum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
stem vagrant summer generation doubtful Aphididae Acaudinum longisetosum
stem vagrant doubtful Aphididae Macrosiphoniella abrotani
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphoniella sejuncta
flower vagrant main Aphididae Macrosiphoniella millefolii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphoniella usquertensis
root collar vagrant Aphididae Microsiphum millefolii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon achilleae
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama flavescens
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 2.ii.2024