Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Santolina

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips tenuicornis
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips collaris
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips hawaiiensis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips discolor
root borer Cerambycidae Trichoferus arenbergeri
unknown scale Diaspididae Targionia nigra
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selidosema taeniolaria
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina carnifex
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris santolinae
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus minor
leaf vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus bolivari
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Alvaradoia numerica
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia santolinata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia chamomillae
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia tanaceti
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant Geometridae Thetidia smaragdaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula rubiginata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula imitaria
unknown unknown Crambidae Loxostege comptalis
unknown unknown doubtful Tortricidae Lozotaenia mabilliana
scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus jaapi
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia santolinae
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia hartigi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Athroolopha pennigeraria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Thetidia plusiaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Heliothea discoidaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Calamodes occitanaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Compsoptera jourdanaria
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena corsica
stem borer Buprestidae Sphenoptera notha
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Chlorita multinervia
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Chlorita laurae
stem borer Buprestidae Meliboeus santolinae
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus succineus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida hyalina
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Cyrtonus pardoi
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Cyrtonus arcasi
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Cyrtonus contractus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera arator
root scale Diaspididae Rhizaspidiotus canariensis
stem gall Eriococcidae Rhizococcus devoniensis
stem scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus thymi
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Agdistis adactyla
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Isophrictis lineatellus
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Isophrictis cerdanica
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Isophrictis invisella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ditula joannisiana
stem gall Tortricidae Cochylimorpha peucedana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria suffugiosa
root scale Coccidae Rhizopulvinaria artemisiae
vagrant Aphididae Coloradoa moralesi
stem gall Tephritidae Dithryca guttulosa
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis santolinae
unknown unknown Psyllidae Craspedolepta santolinae
stem vagrant Aphididae Coloradoa bournieri
fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora involucrella
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Ozirhincus millefolii
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Rhopalomyia navasina
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Rhopalomyia setubalensis
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix santolinella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora albicella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora santolinella
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Isidiella divitella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Sophronia humerella
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia chamaecyparidis
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Rhopalomyia santolinae
stem gall Tortricidae Cochylimorpha santolinana
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.xi.2023