Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi



Incl. Bellidiastrum, Eurybia, Galatella, Oclemena, Symphyotrichum, Tripolium.

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Aster by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a tentiform mine: Aristaea pavoniella

1b corridor or blotch => 2

1c fleck mine => 24

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva with distinct head => 3

2b larva a maggot => 10

3a larva with prolegs => 4

3b no prolegs present => 9

4a mine small, very irregular in shape; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 5

4b mine neither unusually small nor very irregular; most larve mine all their life, never live among spun leaves => 7

5a larva: pinacula colourless (though the base of the setae themselves is black): Cnephasia incertana

5b pinacula black => 6

6a larva: behind/below the anus a black chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

6b no anal comb present: Cnephasia stephensiana

7a the larva mines from a silken tube below the leaf: Scrobipalpula psilella

7b the larve mines from the inside => 8

8a on Aster tripolium: Bucculatrix maritima

8b on other Aster species: Thiodia torridana

9a larva without feet; corridor begins in the leaf base or midrib, is blotchy later; frass dispersed: Orthochaetes insignis

9b larva with thoracic feet; corridor free in the leaf; frass, if at all present, in a central line: Apteropeda orbiculata

10a mine, at least initially, a very narrow, often also very long, corridor => 11

10b corridor not that extremely narrow => 12

11a mine ends upon the midrib, descends from there as a cortex miner along the stem; puparium in the mine, near the root collar: Ophiomyia curvipalpis

11b mine ends in the blade; there the puaprium is visible, in the mine: Ophiomyia maura

12a main branch of the mine on top of the midrib, with lateral lobes following the side veins => 13

12b corridor independent of the leaf venation => 14

13a corridor broad, side branches lobe-like; primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuous: Cornutrypeta spinifrons & Trypeta zoe

13b corridor narrow, side branches normal corridors; no feeding lines: Liriomyza strigata

14a broad primary blotch, no preceding corridor => 15

14b corridor, may form a secondary blotch => 17

15a primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuously present: Nemorimyza posticata

15b no feeding lines to be seen => 16

16a mine dirty green; at its start an elliptic egg shell; centre of the mine with a black mass of frass: Pegomya nigrisquama

16b mine whitish; no egg shell; no central accumulation of frass: Calycomyza humeralis

17a puparium in the mine => 18

17b pupation outside the mine => 20

18a primary feeding lines well visible; Aster tripolium only: Chromatomyia asteris

18b no feeding lines visible; on other Aster species => 19

19a corridor forms a secondary blotch; mountain species: Phytomyza pieninica

19b no secondary blotch is formed; synanthropic species, mainly on garden asters: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

20a corridor begins with a tight spiral, that soon turns brown: Liriomyza eupatorii

20b no spiral at start of mine => 21

21a part of the corridor forms a secondary blotch; mountain species: Phytomyza hoppi

21b generally no secondary blotch is formed; lowland species => 22

22a generally the corridor starts upper-surface, later becoming lower-surface; mostly in greenhouses: Liriomyza huidobrensis

22b generally the corridor starts lower-surface, later becoming upper-surface: Liriomyza asteris

22c generally the corridor is upper-surface throughout its length => 23

23a feeding lines well visible; larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza pusilla

23b no feeding lines; rear spiraculum with 8-11 papillae: Phytomyza erigerophila

24a the larve lives until shortly before pupation as a miner; only then a tubular silken case is made; on Aster tripolium only: Coleophora longicornella

24b larva almost all its life in a case => 25

25a sheath case => 26

25b tubular silken case => 28

26a case ≥ 12 mm, bent: Coleophora conspicuella

26b case ≤ 10 mm => 27

27a mouth angle c. 20°: Coleophora ditella

27b mouth angle c. 50°: Coleophora rectilineella

28a case covered with sand grains => 29

28b case without sand grains => 31

29a case of the younger larva strongly elongated at the rear end, 12-14 mm long; in spring this rear end is dropped; what remains then is a squat sausage of 8-9 mm; Aster amellus: Coleophora autumnella

29b case different; Aster linosyris => 30

30a case ≤ 5 mm: Coleophora frankii

30b case 6-7 mm: Coleophora galatellae

31a case sharply bent behind the mouth; as a result the mouth angle is about 0° causing the case to lie flat on the leaf: Coleophora linosyridella

31b mouth angle 20-45° => 32

32a after the larva has attached its case to the leaf, its makes long corridors from this starting point: Coleophora amellivora

32b the larva makes the normal, roundish, fleck mines => 33

33a on Aster tripolium => 24a: Coleophora longicornella

33b on other Aster species: Coleophora ramosella

Not included in the key: Coleophora maritimarum, possibly associatated with Aster alpinus, Coleophora pseudoditella; Gnorimoschema epithymella, Gnorimoschema steueri; Liriomyza trifolii; Orthochaetes setiger; Scrobipalpa salinella; Scrobipalpula diffluella; See also the note under Coleophora odorariella.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 29.ii.2020