organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer doubtful Tortricidae Falseuncaria ruficiliana
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis vandergooti
leaf gall doubtful Aphididae Aphis wartenbergi
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma bellidis
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomycopsis bellidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Calycomyza humeralis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza pusilla
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Napomyza bellidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza bellidina
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza virgaureae
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ramosella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia ecullyana
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia obscura
leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Puccinia distincta
leaf pustule aecia telia doubtful Pucciniales Puccinia lagenophorae
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
systemic vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis spiraephaga
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 21.x.2019