Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Bellis

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
unknownunknownAeolothripidaeIdolimothrips paradoxus
leafvagrantPterophoridaeHellinsia tephradactyla
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia longana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
flowerhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia longana
fruitborerdoubtfulTortricidaeFalseuncaria ruficiliana
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
rootvagrantAphididaeAphis vandergooti
leafgalldoubtfulAphididaeAphis wartenbergi
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowergallTephritidaeCampiglossa producta
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia cunctata
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces cichoracearum
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma bellidis
leafgallTaphrinalesProtomycopsis bellidis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCalycomyza humeralis
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza pusilla
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeNapomyza bellidis
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza bellidina
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza virgaureae
leafminerChrysomelidaeApteropeda orbiculata
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ramosella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafminerEphydridaeHydrellia griseola
leafminerTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafminerTortricidaeCnephasia ecullyana
leafminerTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia obscura
leafpustuleaecia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia distincta
leafpustuleaecia teliadoubtfulPuccinialesPuccinia lagenophorae
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza lateralis
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
systemicvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis spiraephaga
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.xii.2020