Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Calendula arvensis

field marigold

synonym: Calendula persica

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips tenuicornis
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips simplex
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Aphelia peramplana
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Maccevethus corsicus
leaf vagrant doubtful Scutelleridae Eurygaster integriceps
flower vagrant doubtful Pentatomidae Aelia acuminata
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eysarcoris ventralis
leaf vagrant doubtful Coreidae Haploprocta sulcicornis
leaf vagrant Coreidae Strobilotoma typhaecornis
leaf vagrant doubtful Stenocephalidae Dicranocephalus agilis
leaf vagrant Alydidae Camptopus lateralis
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Stictopleurus abutilon
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius graminicola
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Emblethis griseus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Coriomeris hirticornis
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Conostethus venustus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia oleracea
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia calendulae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis peltigera
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis praecox
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma calendulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.xi.2023