Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Calendula officinalis

pot marigold

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus solenopsis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Hercinothrips femoralis
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips collaris
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips aculeatus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips hawaiiensis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
predator Miridae Macrolophus pygmaeus
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria calendulae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora calendulae
leaf vagrant Miridae Halticus saltator
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Stictopleurus punctatonervosus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
predator Miridae Dicyphus epilobii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf vagrant Erebidae Spilosoma lutea
leaf vagrant Geometridae Apochima flabellaria
unknown unknown Thripidae Microcephalothrips abdominalis
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma calendulae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lagenophorae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium senecionis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 3.ii.2024