Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Bidens tripartitus

trifid bur-marigold

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria bidentis
Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia concomitans
leaf leaf spot Neoramularia bidentis
predator Cecidomyiidae Feltiella acarisuga
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera conmaculata
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus bidensi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
flower borer Tephritidae Dioxyna bidentis
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus borealis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
root vagrant Aphididae Pemphigus fuscicornis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.ix.2022