Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Bidens

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora bidentis
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta bidentis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria bidentis
leaf leaf spot Neoramularia bidentis
Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia concomitans
leaf leaf spot Neoramularia bidentis
predator Cecidomyiidae Feltiella acarisuga
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mniotype usurpatrix
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cornutiplusia circumflexa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chrysodeixis chalcites
leaf vagrant Alydidae Alydus calcaratus
leaf vagrant Alydidae Camptopus lateralis
unknown unknown Thripidae Microcephalothrips abdominalis
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
flower borer Tephritidae Dioxyna sororcula
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera conmaculata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Ametastegia glabrata
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus bidensi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
unknown vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon ilka
flower borer Tephritidae Dioxyna bidentis
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe cumminsiana
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara halstedii
leaf gall Aphididae Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomyces gravidus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza pusilla
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces bidenticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem gall Urocystidales Thecaphora pustulata
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus borealis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
root vagrant Aphididae Pemphigus fuscicornis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.xi.2022