Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Xanthium

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta xanthiicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria xanthii
predator Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia uredinearum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia xanthii
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus italicus
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces depressus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Tingidae Galeatus scrophicus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx atropunctata
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower borer Euarestia bullans
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Ophraella communa
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera nigricornis
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus tergrigorianae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rectinasus buxtoni
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces spadiceus
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara angustiterminalis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza pusilla
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia helianthi
leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Puccinia xanthii
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant rarely Aphididae Protaphis elongata


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.xi.2022