Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Helianthus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriaceae Macrophomina phaseolina
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta compositarum
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
root film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cryptogea
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia minor
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea
leaf leaf spot Leptosphaeriaceae Alternariaster helianthi
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria leucanthemi
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria helianthi
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora helianthicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria helianthina
leaf vagrant Miridae Apolygus lucorum
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygocoris pabulinus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus gemellatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris purpureipennis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Codophila varia
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus pandurus
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Agrius convolvuli
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis peltigera
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula obtusata
root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis segetum
stem borer doubtful Cerambycidae Agapanthia maculicornis
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis asclepiadis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera exigua
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia absinthiata
leaf vagrant Tingidae Galeatus scrophicus
stem borer Mordellidae Mordellistena parvuliformis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx atropunctata
unknown unknown Thripidae Microcephalothrips abdominalis
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Ophraella communa
leaf hidden Crambidae Loxostege sticticalis
stem borer Tephritidae Strautzia longipennis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces ambrosiae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula picridis
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara halstedii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Calycomyza humeralis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza eupatorii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula helianthicola
leaf pustule doubtful Chytridiales Synchytrium solstitiale
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia helianthi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
root gall Heteroderidae Heterodera schachtii
root gall Longidoridae Paralongidorus maximus
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant rarely Aphididae Trama rara
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 3.xii.2022