Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Inula elecampane, irish fleabane, ploughman’s spikenard, golden samphire

Incl. Dittrichia graveolens & viscosa; Limbarda crithmoides

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Inula by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a full depth corridor or blotch => 2

1b upper- or lower-surface corridor or blotch => 11

1c fleck mine => 16

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a blotch, with a central black concentration of frass: Pseudorchestes persimilis

2b no such central frass spot => 3

3a larva without feet: Orthochaetes insignis

3b larva with thoracic feet => 4

4a mine contains an appreciable amount of frass => 5

4b mine with little or no frass => 6

5a older larva (greenish) lives free under a spinning: Tebenna micalis

5b larva (pale pink) mines all its life: Atralata albofascialis

6a larva uniformly greenish, without pinacula => 7

6b larva grey with recognisable pinacula => 10

7a pupation within the mine (in an isolated small blotch without frass) => 8

7b pupation outside the mine (in a fusiform reticulate cocoon, often at the leaf underside against the midrib) => 9

8a final part of the mine corridor-like: Digitivalva valeriella

8b final part rounded, blotch-like: Digitivalva perlepidella

9a species from Spain and southern France: Digitivalva solidaginis

9b species from the Mediterranean from southern France till Dalmatia: Digitivalva occidentella

9c species from southern Europe till southern Russia: Digitivalva orientella

9d species from Macedonia: Digitivalva heringi

9e species from central and southern Europe, Belgium included: Digitivalva granitella

10a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

10b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

10c the larva of Cnephasia ecullyana is not known

11a at the start of the mine a lower-surface elliptic egg shell: Phorbia incana

11b no egg shell visible => 12

12a blotch, preceded by a long corridor: Phytomyza kyffhusana

12b corridor, sometimes a secondary blotch => 13

13a pinnately branched corridor, on top of the midrib and larger side veins: Liriomyza strigata

13b mine not pinnate, not associated with leaf venation => 14

14a frass in discrete grains; larva: rear spiraculum with 6-9 papillae: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

14b frass partly in pearl chains => 15

15a no secondary blotch; puparium sometimes in the mine; larva: rear spiraculum with 15-20 papillae: Phytomyza conyzae

15b mostly a secondary blotch; pupation always outside the mine; rear spiraculum with 7-12 papillae: Liriomyza bryoniae

16a hole in the mine not neatly round; case helicoidal: Apterona helicoidella

16b hole precisely circular; case in principle tubular => 17

17a case laterally compressed, bivalved => 18

17b case a tubular silken case, trivalved => 21

18a On Inula spp. => 19

18b On Dittrichia spp. => 20

19a case brown, hairy (spathulate leaf case); mouth angle about 45°; lowland species: Coleophora conyzae

19b case blackish, smooth; mouth angle less than 45°, causing the case to lie flat on the leaf; mountain species: Coleophora leucogrammella

20a case c. 7 mm: Coleophora jerusalemella

20b case c. 12 mm: Coleophora solidaginella

21a case 9-10 mm => 22

21b case c. 15 mm: Coleophora inulae

22a mouth angle c. 30°: Coleophora follicularis

22b mouth angle 45-60°: Coleophora trochilella

Not included in the key: Digitivalva eglanteriella, pappella; Pseudorchestes ? cinereus, persimilis gallicus.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 26.xi.2020