Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pallenis spinosa

synonym: Asteriscus spinosus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus robustus
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia virgula
unknown unknown Tephritidae Goniurellia longicauda
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
flower gall Curculionidae Larinus longirostris
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida pusilla
flower borer Gelechiidae Isophrictis kefersteiniellus
leaf hidden Pyralidae Epischnia illotella
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus inulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma mediterraneum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf pustule uredinia telia doubtful Pucciniales Coleosporium asterisici-aquatici
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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