Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Arctium

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Dermateaceae Marssonia lappae
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta albomaculata
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta lappicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lapparum
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta sonchi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia splendens
stem borer Noctuidae Gortyna flavago
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia pustulata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Pyralidae Udea ferrugalis
leaf vagrant Vanessa virgniniensis
stem borer Mordellidae Mordellistena kraatzi
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Porrittia galactodactyla
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Evacanthus interruptus
leaf vagrant doubtful Cicadellidae Eupteryx melissae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx aurata
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
unknown borer larva doubtful Apionidae Ceratapion basicorne
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion penetrans
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida panzeri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida rubiginosa
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida vibex
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida rubiginosa
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Cyrtonus punctipennis
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo livida
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo mesomela
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Athalia circularis
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Calyciphora albodactylus
root borer Tortricidae Epiblema cirsiana
leaf hidden doubtful Depressariidae Agonopterix pallorella
root borer doubtful Tortricidae Epiblema sticticana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips podana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis posterana
flower borer Pyralidae Myelois circumvoluta
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis dubitana
fruit hidden Tortricidae Aethes rubigana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria lappae
leaf gall Aphrophoridae Philaenus spumarius
flower borer Gelechiidae Metzneria lappella
root vagrant Syrphidae Cheilosia impressa
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vulpina
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Uroleucon cirsicola
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis zernyi
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza lappae
fruit gall Tephritidae Terellia tussilaginis
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis bardanae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces depressus
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia abscondita
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza continua
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza lappae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza lappivora
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Phytomyza penicilla
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya laticornis
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora onopordiella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora paripennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix carduella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona gracilis
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia silvatica
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia bardanae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae mordvilkoi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria inturbida
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
root gall Tortricidae Epiblema scutulana
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Smynthurodes betae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus lateralis
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis lappae lappae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.xi.2022