organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus planus
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis posterana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis dubitana
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia fraterna
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus filiformis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus pulverulentus
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion gibbirostre
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus carduinus
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza aeneoventris
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis acanthoidis
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis hyoscyami
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia serratulae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria balasi
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum cardui
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora solstitialis
leaf borer Tephritidae Xyphosia miliaria
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza apfelbecki
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spinaciae
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya terebrans
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma testaceum
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Gelechiidae Scrobipalpa acuminatella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia carduorum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus cardui
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon aeneum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 21.xi.2019