Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Carduus crispus

welted thistle

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma testaceum
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis cardui
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeHadroplontus litura
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetostomella cylindrica
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia cynarae
rootborerlarvaCurculionidaeTrichosirocalus horridus
root collarborerApionidaeCeratapion onopordi
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion gibbirostre
leaf budborerChrysomelidaePsylliodes chalcomera
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida rubiginosa
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus pulverulentus
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix arenella
flowergalllarvaCurculionidaeLarinus planus
unknownborerdoubtfulSyrphidaeCheilosia mutabilis
stemborerSyrphidaeCheilosia cynocephala
root collarborerSyrphidaeCheilosia albipila
root collarborerSyrphidaeCheilosia grossa
unknownborerlarvaCurculionidaeHadroplontus trimaculatus
flowergallCurculionidaeRhinocyllus conicus
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus filiformis
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus sturnus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus iaceae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza aeneoventris
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritis hyoscyami
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia winthemi
flowergallMicrobotryalesMicrobotryum cardui
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora solstitialis
leafborerTephritidaeXyphosia miliaria
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula lappae
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza cirsii
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza cirsiophaga
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza continua
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza spinaciae
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya steini
leafminerChoreutidaeTebenna micalis
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix subpropinquella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa acuminatella
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara halterata
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara macrotricha
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia carduorum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon aeneum
leafvagrantAphididaeCapitophorus carduinus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 1.iv.2021