organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis posterana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis dubitana
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta hamana
fruit borer Tortricidae Aethes cnicana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria cardui
flower borer Pyralidae Phycitodes binaevella
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces argyrogrammos
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
unknown borer doubtful Syrphidae Cheilosia mutabilis
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia cynocephala
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia albipila
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia fraterna
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia grossa
root borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus horridus
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus trimaculatus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus litura
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus escorialensis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus filiformis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus pulverulentus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus scolymi
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus turbinatus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
unknown borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion calcaratum
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion gibbirostre
unknown borer larva doubtful Apionidae Ceratapion basicorne
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon macrosiphon
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis hendeliana
flower borer doubtful Tephritidae Tephritis acanthiophilopsis
leaf vagrant Triozidae Trioza cirsii
flower vagrant rarely Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza aeneoventris
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis acanthoidis
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
fruit vagrant doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora frischella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis hyoscyami
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia serratulae
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia winthemi
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall Curculionidae Rhinocyllus conicus
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus carlinae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria balasi
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum cardui
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis conura
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora solstitialis
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
leaf borer Tephritidae Xyphosia miliaria
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis wartenbergi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza apfelbecki
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsiophaga
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza continua
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spinaciae
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya hessei
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya terebrans
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma testaceum
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora follicularis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora paripennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trochilella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix carduella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Scrobipalpa acuminatella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Scrobipalpa perinii
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita notata
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium cardui
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cardui-carlinoidis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia carduorum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cardui-pycnocephali
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus cardui
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
root gall Tortricidae Epiblema scutulana
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus lateralis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus carduinus
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon aeneum
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 9.xi.2019