spear thistle

synonym: Cirsium lanceolatum; Cnicus lanceolatus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis posterana
stem borer Tortricidae Lobesia abscisana
flower borer Pyralidae Myelois circumvoluta
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis dubitana
fruit borer Tortricidae Aethes cnicana
fruit hidden Tortricidae Aethes rubigana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria cirsii
flower borer Pyralidae Phycitodes binaevella
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma cana
flower borer Gelechiidae Metzneria neuropterella
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vulpina
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia grossa
root borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus horridus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus litura
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus filiformis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus turbinatus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus carlinae
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
flower vagrant rarely Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza aeneoventris
fruit gall rarely Tephritidae Terellia tussilaginis
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis cirsii
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia jaceae
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis acanthiophilopsis
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis cometa
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia serratulae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella cirsiicola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella compositarum
flower gall Cynipidae Isocolus cirsii
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis conura
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora terebrans
leaf borer Tephritidae Xyphosia miliaria
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe mayorii var. mayorii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia cirsii
leaf gall Aphididae Uroleucon cirsii
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria anthocoptes
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spinaciae
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma testaceum
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix carduella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Scrobipalpa acuminatella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia dioicae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cnici
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia cnici-oleracei
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera nigricornis
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
root gall Tortricidae Epiblema scutulana
leaf gall Aphididae Capitophorus horni
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus carduinus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus gynoxanthus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 5.xi.2019