Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cirsium vulgare

spear thistle

synonym: Cirsium lanceolatum; Cnicus lanceolatus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeAltica carduorum
leafvagrantdoubtfulChrysomelidaeCassida panzeri
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida vibex
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida rubiginosa
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeLema cyanella
leafminerChoreutidaeTebenna micalis
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
rootborerTortricidaeEpiblema cirsiana
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix ferocella
flowergalllarvaCurculionidaeLarinus planus
flowerborerTortricidaeCochylis posterana
stemborerTortricidaeLobesia abscisana
flowerborerPyralidaeMyelois circumvoluta
flowerborerTortricidaeCochylis dubitana
fruitborerTortricidaeAethes cnicana
fruithiddenTortricidaeAethes rubigana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria cirsii
flowerborerPyralidaePhycitodes binaevella
fruitborerPyralidaeHomoeosoma nebulella
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma cana
flowerborerGelechiidaeMetzneria neuropterella
rootborerSyrphidaeCheilosia vulpina
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion scalptum
root collarborerSyrphidaeCheilosia grossa
rootborerlarvaCurculionidaeTrichosirocalus horridus
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeHadroplontus litura
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus filiformis
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus sturnus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus turbinatus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus iaceae
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion carduorum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
flowervagrantrarelyAphididaeUroleucon jaceae
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza aeneoventris
fruitgallrarelyTephritidaeTerellia tussilaginis
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeMacrolabis cirsii
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetorellia jaceae
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritis acanthiophilopsis
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritis cometa
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia serratulae
flowergallCecidomyiidaeJaapiella cirsiicola
flowergallCecidomyiidaeJaapiella compositarum
flowergallCynipidaeIsocolus cirsii
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis conura
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora stylata
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora terebrans
leafborerTephritidaeXyphosia miliaria
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe mayorii var. mayorii
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula lappae
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia cirsii
leafgallAphididaeUroleucon cirsii
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria anthocoptes
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza cirsii
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza spinaciae
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya steini
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma testaceum
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora peribenanderi
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix arenella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix carduella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix propinquella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix subpropinquella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa acuminatella
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara halterata
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara macrotricha
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia dioicae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia cnici
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia cnici-oleracei
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantTriozidaeBactericera nigricornis
root collargallCurculionidaeCleonis pigra
rootgallTortricidaeEpiblema scutulana
leafgallAphididaeCapitophorus horni
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
systemicvagrantAphididaeProtaphis terricola
leafvagrantAphididaeCapitophorus carduinus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCapitophorus elaeagni
leafvagrantAphididaeCapitophorus gynoxanthus

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 25.vii.2020