organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Aphelia paleana
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus planus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia pasiuana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis posterana
stem borer Tortricidae Lobesia abscisana
flower borer Pyralidae Myelois circumvoluta
root borer doubtful Tortricidae Endothenia oblongana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis dubitana
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta hamana
fruit borer Tortricidae Aethes cnicana
fruit hidden Tortricidae Aethes rubigana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria cirsii
unknown borer doubtful Prodoxidae Lampronia rupella
flower borer Pyralidae Phycitodes binaevella
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces caesaris
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
flower borer Gelechiidae Metzneria neuropterella
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma cana
unknown borer doubtful Syrphidae Cheilosia velutina
unknown borer Syrphidae Cheilosia melanura
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vernalis
stem borer doubtful Syrphidae Cheilosia cynocephala
unknown borer Syrphidae Cheilosia flavipes
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vulpina
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia chloris
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia albipila
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia grossa
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia fraterna
root collar borer Syrphidae Cheilosia proxima
root borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus horridus
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus trimaculatus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus litura
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus filiformis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus pulverulentus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus turbinatus
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion gibbirostre
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
flower vagrant main Aphididae Uroleucon cirsicola
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama flavescens
vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon macrosiphon
root vagrant doubtful Aphididae Protaphis anthemidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Clinodiplosis cirsii
leaf vagrant doubtful Triozidae Trioza flixiana
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma testaceum
flower vagrant rarely Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza eriolepidis
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza aeneoventris
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis acanthoidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall rarely Tephritidae Terellia tussilaginis
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis cirsii
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis acanthiophilopsis
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis cometa
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia longicauda
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia ruficauda
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia serratulae
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia winthemi
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia jaceae
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella cirsiicola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella compositarum
flower gall Curculionidae Rhinocyllus conicus
flower gall Cynipidae Isocolus cirsii
flower gall doubtful Microbotryales Microbotryum cardui
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis conura
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora congrua
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora terebrans
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower gall Urocystidales Thecaphora trailii
leaf borer Tephritidae Xyphosia miliaria
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe mayorii var. mayorii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia cirsii
leaf gall Aphididae Uroleucon cirsii
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis cirsiioleracei
leaf gall Aphididae Capitophorus horni
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Clinodiplosis oleracei
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria anthocoptes
leaf gall doubtful Psyllidae Craspedolepta nervosa
leaf gall doubtful Taphrinales Protomyces cirsii-oleracei
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza agrophila
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza viridula
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza soror
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza apfelbecki
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Amauromyza carlinae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza albiceps
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza autumnalis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsiophaga
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza continua
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza heterophylli
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spinaciae
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Phytomyza spoliata
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya terebrans
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora follicularis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora paripennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix carduella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix ferocella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix nanatella aridella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Scrobipalpa acuminatella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Gnorimoschema ochraceellum
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia lineata
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita globulariae
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita graeca
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita notata
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita tenuicornis
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula obtusata
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula spinulosa
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium sanguineum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia caricis-frigidae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cirsii-sempervirentis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia dioicae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cirsii-eriophori
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cnici
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia punctiformis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia laschii
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia cnici-oleracei
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia lemonnieriana
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia odontolepidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus cardui
leaf vagrant Triozidae Trioza cirsii
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera nigricornis
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem gall Tephritidae Urophora cardui
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
root gall Tortricidae Epiblema scutulana
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis cirsii
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Lauthia cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation main Aphididae Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae frangulae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis janischi
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus lateralis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus carduinus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Capitophorus gynoxanthus
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis lappae cirsii
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon aeneum

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 4.xii.2019