Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cynara scolymus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantdoubtfulNymphalidaeMelitaea aetherie
leafvagrantNymphalidaeVanessa cardui
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida deflorata
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia chrysantheana
rootborerBuprestidaeSphenoptera rauca
leafvagrantTetranychidaePseudobryobia longisetis
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia cynarae
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus cynarae
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion gibbirostre
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella occidentalis
leafminerChrysomelidaeArgopus circumaedeagus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida vibex
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida palaestina
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida algirica
unknownunknowndoubtfulCrambidaeAporodes floralis
rootborerSyrphidaeCheilosia vulpina
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion scalptum
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus scolopax
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus scolymi
stemborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeCeratapion carduorum
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria neocynarae
systemicvagrantAphididaeProtaphis terricola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia fuscicornis
leafborerApionidaeCeratapion damryi
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula lappae
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza apfelbecki
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerChoreutidaeTebenna micalis
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma rubidum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
leafgallAphididaeCapitophorus horni
root collarvagrantAphididaeDysaphis lappae cynarae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae mordvilkoi
flowervagrantrarelyAphididaeUroleucon jaceae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCapitophorus elaeagni


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 7.vii.2021