organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus cynarae
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus scolymi
stem borer larva doubtful Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria neocynarae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria cynarae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia fuscicornis
flower gall doubtful Tephritidae Urophora terebrans
leaf borer Apionidae Ceratapion damryi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall Aphididae Capitophorus horni
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza apfelbecki
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cirsii
leaf miner rarely Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya terebrans
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora argenteonivea
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni
flower vagrant rarely Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae mordvilkoi
flower vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis lappae cynarae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 15.v.2019