Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Cynara

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantNoctuidaeThysanoplusia orichalcea
leafvagrantNymphalidaeVanessa cardui
leafvagrantNymphalidaeMelitaea aetherie
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida deflorata
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia chrysantheana
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeoderella lanuginosa
rootborerBuprestidaeSphenoptera rauca
leafvagrantTetranychidaePseudobryobia longisetis
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia gynaecochroma
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia cynarae
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion gibbirostre
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella occidentalis
leafminerChrysomelidaeArgopus circumaedeagus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida rubiginosa
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida algirica
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida vibex
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida palaestina
leafhiddenElachistidaeDepressaria erinaceella
unknownunknowndoubtfulCrambidaeAporodes floralis
flowerborerGelechiidaeMetzneria torosulella
flowerborerCosmopterigidaePyroderces argyrogrammos
rootborerSyrphidaeCheilosia vulpina
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion scalptum
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus cynarae
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus scolopax
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus scolymi
stemborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeCeratapion carduorum
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria neocynarae
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria cynarae
systemicvagrantAphididaeProtaphis terricola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia fuscicornis
flowergalldoubtfulTephritidaeUrophora terebrans
leafborerApionidaeCeratapion damryi
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula lappae
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafgallAphididaeCapitophorus horni
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza apfelbecki
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza cirsii
leafminerrarelyAnthomyiidaePegomya steini
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya terebrans
leafminerChoreutidaeTebenna micalis
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma rubidum
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora argenteonivea
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix propinquella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix subpropinquella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
root collarborerApionidaeCeratapion onopordi
root collargallCurculionidaeCleonis pigra
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama troglodytes
rootvagrantAphididaeProtrama radicis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCapitophorus elaeagni
flowervagrantrarelyAphididaeUroleucon jaceae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae mordvilkoi
flowervagrantsummer generationrarelyAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
root collarvagrantAphididaeDysaphis lappae cynarae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 23.vii.2021