cotton thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower borer Pyralidae Myelois circumvoluta
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus latus
root borer Tortricidae Dichrorampha aeratana
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces argyrogrammos
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
root borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus horridus
root borer larva Curculionidae Trichosirocalus briesei
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus cardui
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus turbinatus
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion carduorum
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion gibbirostre
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus lateralis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis postica
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora terebrans
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces depressus
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza autumnalis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spinaciae
leaf miner doubtful Anthomyiidae Pegomya steini
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia acanthii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 11.ii.2020