Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Silybum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorEulophidaeAprostocetus venustus
leafvagrantMiridaeCalocoris nemoralis
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthocephalus proserpinae
stemborerCerambycidaeAgapanthia annularis
stemborerCerambycidaeAgapanthia cardui
stemborerCerambycidaeHelladia humeralis
stemborerCerambycidaePhytoecia geniculata
stemborerCerambycidaeAgapanthia kirbyi
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAcronicta rumicis
leafvagrantErebidaeOcnogyna baetica
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis cardui
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetostomella cylindrica
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia cynarae
unknownunknownPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips reuteri
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion scalptum
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeAltica carduorum
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida rubiginosa
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida palaestina
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida deflorata
leaf budborerChrysomelidaePsylliodes chalcomera
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma rubidum
fruitborerPyralidaeHomoeosoma nebulella
unknownborerlarvaCurculionidaeHadroplontus trimaculatus
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus pulverulentus
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus filiformis
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus sturnus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus sturnus
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion gibbirostre
root collarborerApionidaeCeratapion onopordi
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma testaceum
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRectinasus buxtoni
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia fuscicornis
flowergallMicrobotryalesMicrobotryum silybum
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula taurica
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia laschii
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia mariana
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia cruchetiana
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza lateralis
stemgallCynipidaeAulacidea freesei
stemgallCynipidaePhanacis zwolferi
root collargallCurculionidaeCleonis pigra
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCapitophorus elaeagni
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon aeneum
root collarvagrantAphididaeDysaphis lappae cynarae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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