Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Silybum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria silybi
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris nemoralis
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus proserpinae
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia annularis
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia cardui
stem borer Cerambycidae Helladia humeralis
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia geniculata
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia kirbyi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Ocnogyna baetica
leaf vagrant Tingidae Tingis cardui
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynarae
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica carduorum
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida rubiginosa
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida palaestina
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida deflorata
leaf bud borer Chrysomelidae Psylliodes chalcomera
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus trimaculatus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus pulverulentus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus filiformis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus sturnus
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion gibbirostre
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma testaceum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rectinasus buxtoni
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia fuscicornis
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum silybum
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia laschii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia mariana
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cruchetiana
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem gall Cynipidae Aulacidea freesei
stem gall Cynipidae Phanacis zwolferi
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Capitophorus elaeagni
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon aeneum
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis lappae cynarae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.xii.2022