organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
flower borer Pyralidae Myelois circumvoluta
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria utzkae
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces argyrogrammos
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
flower gall Curculionidae Larinus pollinis
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus carlinae
vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon macrosiphon
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon carlinae
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis vandergooti
flower borer summer generation Pterophoridae Hellinsia carphodactyla
stem borer spring generation Pterophoridae Hellinsia carphodactyla
leaf vagrant Aphididae Protaphis carlinae
fruit vagrant doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora frischella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon helenae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower gall Curculionidae Larinus pollinis
flower gall Gelechiidae Metzneria aestivella
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora terebrans
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria carlinae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza carlinae
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora paripennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora peribenanderi
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix nanatella
leaf miner Elachistidae Perittia carlinella
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita subsolana
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia carlinae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia divergens
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
root gall Curculionidae Pseudocleonus grammicus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 9.xi.2019