Carthamus safflower, saffron thistle
Dichotomous table for leafminers
Incl. Carduncellus, Kentrophyllum.
1a mine long, upper-surface; larvae remain in the mine all their life => 2
1b mine small, full depth; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana
1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species
2a corridor pinnately branched, main and secondary branches overlying the midrib and thick side veins; frass in strings; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza strigata
2b mine little branched, not associated with leaf venation; frass in discrete grains; pupation within the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae
Not included in the key: Liriomyza trifolii.