organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces argyrogrammos
fruit borer Pyralidae Homoeosoma nebulella
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus flavescens
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon carthami
unknown vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon ilka
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
flower gall Curculionidae Larinus carinirostris
flower gall Cynipidae Isocolus carthami
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora mauritanica
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara carthami
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf pustule doubtful Chytridiales Synchytrium solstitiale
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia carthami
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia carduncelli
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia kentrophylli
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia verruca
root collar gall Cynipidae Phanacis kiefferi
root gall Cynipidae Phanacis carthami
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon aeneum
flower vagrant rarely Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 9.xi.2019