Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Centaurea calcitrapa

red star-thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips discolor
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips physapus
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
unknown vagrant Thripidae Thrips vuilleti
flower borer Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina fuliginosa
root collar borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion basicorne
flower vagrant Erebidae Eublemma parva
predator Eurytomidae Eurytoma tibialis
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Oxycarenus pallens
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus impictus
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus rufescens
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus purpureolineatus
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus plicatulus
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontotarsus robustus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris coreanus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euxoa mendelis
stem borer doubtful Cerambycidae Helladia adelpha
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melitaea aetherie
root vagrant Curculionidae Dichromacalles diocletianus
flower borer Tephritidae Urophora pauperata
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora mauritanica
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia zerovae
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia virens
fruit gall Tephritidae Urophora quadrifasciata
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia conjuncta
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia succinea
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora affinis
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora jaceana
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
stem borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion scalptum
unknown unknown Pyralidae Epischnia prodromella
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces argyrogrammos
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria centaureae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora hispanica
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora sjumorum
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza spoliata
leaf miner Curculionidae Pseudorchestes heringi
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia centaureae
leaf pustule uredinia telia doubtful Pucciniales Puccinia calcitrapae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 18.ix.2023