common knapweed

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
root borer doubtful Tortricidae Endothenia oblongana
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta zoegana
fruit vagrant Tortricidae Aethes smeathmanniana
root collar borer summer generation Tortricidae Cochylimorpha straminea
flower borer spring generation Tortricidae Cochylimorpha straminea
unknown borer Syrphidae Cheilosia nebulosa
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus pulverulentus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus obtusus
unknown borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion armatum
flower borer rarely Gelechiidae Ptocheuusa paupella
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza dettmeri
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza hirticornis
fruit gall Cynipidae Isocolus jaceae
fruit gall Tephritidae Urophora quadrifasciata
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia jaceae
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetorellia loricata
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall main Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora jaceana
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces montagnei
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia centaureae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza autumnalis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora conspicuella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora paripennella
leaf miner Curculionidae Pseudorchestes persimilis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix carduella
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix subpropinquella
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita globulariae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia arenariicola
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia caricis-montanae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia centaureae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia jaceae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia montana
stem gall Cynipidae Isocolus scabiosae
stem gall Cynipidae Phanacis centaureae
stem gall Tephritidae Campiglossa misella
root collar borer Apionidae Ceratapion penetrans
root gall Tortricidae Epiblema scutulana
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon jaceicola
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon jaceae
root collar vagrant doubtful Aphididae Acaudinum centaureae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 10.xi.2019