Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Centaurea nigra

common knapweed

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia satyrata
rootborerBuprestidaeMeliboeus graminis
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora cuspidata
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina fuliginosa
rootborerTortricidaeEpiblema cirsiana
flowerborerGelechiidaeMetzneria neuropterella
leafhiddenDepressariidaeAgonopterix kaekeritziana
leafhiddenDepressariidaeAgonopterix pallorella
unknownunknownPyralidaeEpischnia prodromella
rootborerTortricidaePelochrista caecimaculana
rootborerTortricidaeEpiblema cirsiana
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma hohenwartiana
flowerborerrarelyTortricidaeEucosma cana
leafvagrantTortricidaeAphelia viburniana
leafhiddenTortricidaePhiledonides lunana
rootborerdoubtfulTortricidaeEndothenia oblongana
rootborerTortricidaeAgapeta zoegana
fruitvagrantTortricidaeAethes smeathmanniana
root collarborersummer generationTortricidaeCochylimorpha straminea
flowerborerspring generationTortricidaeCochylimorpha straminea
unknownborerSyrphidaeCheilosia nebulosa
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus pulverulentus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus obtusus
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion armatum
flowerborerrarelyGelechiidaePtocheuusa paupella
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza dettmeri
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza hirticornis
fruitgallCynipidaeIsocolus jaceae
fruitgallTephritidaeUrophora quadrifasciata
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetorellia jaceae
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetorellia loricata
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetostomella cylindrica
flowergallmainTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora jaceana
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia centaureae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza autumnalis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora conspicuella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora paripennella
leafminerCurculionidaePseudorchestes persimilis
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix arenella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix carduella
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix subpropinquella
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita globulariae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia arenariicola
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia caricis-montanae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia centaureae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia jaceae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia montana
stemgallCynipidaeIsocolus scabiosae
stemgallCynipidaePhanacis centaureae
stemgallTephritidaeCampiglossa misella
root collarborerApionidaeCeratapion penetrans
rootgallTortricidaeEpiblema scutulana
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon jaceicola
flowervagrantAphididaeUroleucon jaceae
root collarvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeAcaudinum centaureae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 31.v.2021