yellow star-thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
systemic witches’ broom Eriophyidae Aceria solcentaureae
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus filiformis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
flower borer larva Curculionidae Bangasternus orientalis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus curtus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus obtusus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus flavescens
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus iaceae
flower gall larva Curculionidae Larinus carlinae
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus turbinatus
unknown borer larva Apionidae Ceratapion basicorne
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria centaureae
stem borer Agromyzidae Hexomyza centaureae
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria solstitialis
fruit gall Tephritidae Urophora quadrifasciata
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
flower gall Cynipidae Isocolus centaureae
flower gall Cynipidae Isocolus ponticus
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora jaculata
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora sirunaseva
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium solstitiale
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia centaureae
stem gall Cynipidae Phanacis centaureae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Acaudinum bulgaricum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 23.ix.2019