Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Centaurea stoebe

spotted knapweed

synonym: Acosta rhenana; Centaurea maculosa, maculosa subsp. rhenana, mureti, rhenena

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafhiddendoubtfulGelechiidaeDichomeris rasilella
leafhiddenDepressariidaeAgonopterix kaekeritziana
rootborerTortricidaePelochrista caecimaculana
stemgalldoubtfulTortricidaeEucosma albidulana
flowerborerCosmopterigidaePyroderces argyrogrammos
flowerborerGelechiidaeMetzneria paucipunctella
root collarborersummer generationTortricidaeCochylimorpha straminea
flowerborerspring generationTortricidaeCochylimorpha straminea
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya centaureae
rootborerlarvaBuprestidaeSphenoptera jugoslavica
rootgalllarvaCurculionidaeCyphocleonus achates
root collargallCurculionidaeCleonis pigra
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus obtusus
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeCeratapion orientale
rootvagrantAphididaeProtrama radicis
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon jaceicola
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama centaureae
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama rara
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetorellia acrolophi
flowervagrantAphididaeUroleucon jaceae
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza oligophaga
fruitgallCynipidaeIsocolus jaceae
fruitgallTephritidaeUrophora quadrifasciata
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia virens
flowergallCurculionidaeLarinus minutus
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora affinis
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafgallCecidomyiidaeLoewiola centaureae
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria centaureae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza centaureae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita chloros
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita globulariae
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita notata
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia caricis-montanae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia centaureae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia jaceae
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia verruca
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia curvipalpis
stemgallCynipidaeIsocolus scabiosae
stemgallCynipidaePhanacis centaureae
root collarborerApionidaeCeratapion penetrans
stemvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphoniella staegeri
stemvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAcaudinum longisetosum
root collarvagrantspring generationAphididaeAcaudinum longisetosum
root collarvagrantspring generationAphididaeAcaudinum roumanicum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAcaudinum roumanicum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


To filter the table above, add a text to the search field (top right of the table).
To sort a column click on an arrow after the column name (both ascending and descending).
Sort multiple columns with Shift + click on the arrows.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.i.2020