Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cyanus montanus

perennial cornflower

synonym: Centaurea angustifolia Mill., montana

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua pronuba
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua comes
flowervagrantdoubtfulErebidaeEublemma parva
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora cuspidata
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeOreina caerulea
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida alpina
leafhiddenDepressariidaeAgonopterix laterella
flowergallGelechiidaeMetzneria metzneriella
leafhiddenDepressariidaeAgonopterix kaekeritziana
unknownunknownTortricidaeAethes decimana
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus rugulosus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus obtusus
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia centaureae
fruitgallCynipidaeIsocolus jaceae
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetostomella cylindrica
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea stellata
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura centaureae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces depressus
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces montagnei
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera xanthii
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafgallAphididaeUroleucon montanivorum
leafgalldoubtfulCecidomyiidaeLoewiola centaureae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza centaureae
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza autumnalis
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza montana
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya centaureae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora conspicuella
leafpustuleAlbuginalesPustula spinulosa
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia caricis-montanae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia centaureae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia montana
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia verruca


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.ix.2021