Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Echinops

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorTorymidaeIdiomacromerus yunusi
predatorOrmyridaeOrmyrus tschami
leafvagrantMiridaeAdelphocoris vandalicus
predatorMiridaeMacrolophus pygmaeus
predatorMiridaeDicyphus tamaninii
predatorMiridaeMacrolophus glaucescens
leafvagrantLygaeidaeCymus claviculus
leafvagrantBerytidaeNeides tipularius
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris fuscispinus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris pudicus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris purpureipennis
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCodophila varia
leafvagrantBerytidaeApoplymus pectoralis
leafvagrantdoubtfulPlataspididaeCoptosoma mucronatum
leafvagrantRhopalidaeCorizus hyoscyami
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula taurica
stemborerErebidaeEublemma gratissima
unknownunknownErebidaeEublemma hansa
scaleDiaspididaeHemiberlesia cyanophylli
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza carlinae
stemborerCerambycidaeAgapanthiola leucaspis
stemborerCerambycidaePhytoecia virgula
stemborerCerambycidaePteromallosia albolineata
leafvagrantNoctuidaeHeliothis nubigera
leafvagrantErebidaeEublemma ostrina
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita hispanica
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeodera gaditana
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeoderella rufmarginata
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis stricula
leafvagrantTingidaeElasmotropis testacea
stemborerBuprestidaeMeliboeus granulatus
rootborerBuprestidaeMeliboeus parvulus
stemborerCurculionidaeThamnurgus caucasicus
flowerborerTephritidaeTerellia quadratula
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritomyia lauta
flowerborerTephritidaeChaetostomella cylindrica
root collargalldoubtfulTephritidaeOxyna flavipennis
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora stylata
flowergallTephritidaeAcanthiophilus helianthi
fruitgallTephritidaeUrophora quadrifasciata
flowerborerCurculionidaeLarinus hedenborgi
unknownunknownCurculionidaeLarinus inaequalicollis
flowerborerCurculionidaeLarinus capsulatus
unknownunknownGelechiidaeMetzneria artificella
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus flavescens
root collarborerdoubtfulApionidaeCeratapion onopordi
unknownunknownApionidaeCeratapion perlongum
unknownunknownApionidaeCeratapion transsylvanicum
leafvagrantPterophoridaeCalyciphora homoiodactyla
leafvagrantPterophoridaeCalyciphora albodactylus
stemborerDepressariidaeAgonopterix straminella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria banatica
flowerborerCosmopterigidaePyroderces caesaris
root collargallCurculionidaeCleonis pigra
unknownborerlarvaCurculionidaeHadroplontus trimaculatus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus onopordi
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus scolopax
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeLarinus vulpes
AphididaePaczoskia meridionalis
vagrantAphididaePaczoskia brevipilosa
leafvagrantAphididaePaczoskia major
leafvagrantAphididaePaczoskia paczoskii
vagrantAphididaePaczoskia longipes
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafminerChrysomelidaeSphaeroderma rubidum
flowergallTephritidaeUrophora pontica
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces echinopis
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula lappae
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula picridis
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza bipunctata
leafminerChoreutidaeTebenna micalis
leafminerDepressariidaeAgonopterix ferocella
leafminerGelechiidaeGnorimoschema ochraceellum
leafminerZygaenidaeJordanita subsolana
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia echinopis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia pulvinata
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum circumflexum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 27.vi.2022