Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Echinops

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris mediterraneus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Trichosirocalus urens
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
leaf pustule telia Pucciniaceae Puccinia hellenica
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta echinopis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria echinopis
predator Torymidae Idiomacromerus yunusi
predator Ormyridae Ormyrus tschami
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris vandalicus
predator Miridae Macrolophus pygmaeus
predator Miridae Dicyphus tamaninii
predator Miridae Macrolophus glaucescens
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Cymus claviculus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Neides tipularius
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris fuscispinus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris pudicus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris purpureipennis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Codophila varia
leaf vagrant Berytidae Apoplymus pectoralis
leaf vagrant doubtful Plataspididae Coptosoma mucronatum
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Corizus hyoscyami
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
stem borer Erebidae Eublemma gratissima
unknown unknown Erebidae Eublemma hansa
scale Diaspididae Hemiberlesia cyanophylli
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza carlinae
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthiola leucaspis
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia virgula
stem borer Cerambycidae Pteromallosia albolineata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis nubigera
leaf vagrant Erebidae Eublemma ostrina
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita hispanica
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeodera gaditana
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeoderella rufmarginata
leaf vagrant Tingidae Tingis stricula
leaf vagrant Tingidae Elasmotropis testacea
stem borer Buprestidae Meliboeus granulatus
root borer Buprestidae Meliboeus parvulus
stem borer Curculionidae Thamnurgus caucasicus
flower borer Tephritidae Terellia quadratula
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritomyia lauta
flower borer Tephritidae Chaetostomella cylindrica
root collar gall doubtful Tephritidae Oxyna flavipennis
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora stylata
flower gall Tephritidae Acanthiophilus helianthi
fruit gall Tephritidae Urophora quadrifasciata
flower borer Curculionidae Larinus hedenborgi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Larinus inaequalicollis
flower borer Curculionidae Larinus capsulatus
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Metzneria artificella
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus flavescens
root collar borer doubtful Apionidae Ceratapion onopordi
unknown unknown Apionidae Ceratapion perlongum
unknown unknown Apionidae Ceratapion transsylvanicum
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Calyciphora homoiodactyla
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Calyciphora albodactylus
stem borer Depressariidae Agonopterix straminella
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria banatica
flower borer Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces caesaris
root collar gall Curculionidae Cleonis pigra
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Hadroplontus trimaculatus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus onopordi
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus scolopax
flower borer larva Curculionidae Larinus vulpes
Aphididae Paczoskia meridionalis
vagrant Aphididae Paczoskia brevipilosa
leaf vagrant Aphididae Paczoskia major
leaf vagrant Aphididae Paczoskia paczoskii
vagrant Aphididae Paczoskia longipes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Sphaeroderma rubidum
flower gall Tephritidae Urophora pontica
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces echinopis
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lappae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula picridis
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza bipunctata
leaf miner Choreutidae Tebenna micalis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix ferocella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Gnorimoschema ochraceellum
leaf miner Zygaenidae Jordanita subsolana
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia echinopis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia pulvinata
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.xii.2023