Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Cichorium chicory

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine in the fleshy white (etiolated) leaves of Belgian Endive => 2

1b mine in the normal, green leaves => 4

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva: cephalic skeleton of the Agromyzinae-type; rear spiraculum with ca. 9 papillae: Ophiomyia pinguis

2b arva: cephalic skeleton of the Phytomyzinae-type; rear spiraculum with > 20 papillae => 3

3a larva in the midrib that is swollen like being galled; species not known from the Benelux: Phytomyza penicillata

3b no swelling of the midrib; well known pest species: Napomyza cichorii

4a mine full depth, larva with chitinised head => 5

4b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a magot => 7

5a sizable gallery; larva, without feet, minees all its life: Orthochaetes setiger

5b small mines of indefinite shape; larva (with thoracic feet) later lives free among spun leaves => 6

6a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

6b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

7a mine a pinnately branched corridor, its main branch overlying the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

7b mine not pinnately branched, not associated with the midrib => 8

8a mine a gallery => 9

8b blotch mine: Liriomyza endiviae, L. puella en L. sonchi

9a gallery runs freely through the leaf => 10

9b short corridors emanating from the leaf base or midrib; puparium in the midrib or stem: Phytomyza continua

10a puparium formed in the leaf, in a, generally lower surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

10b the larva pupates after having left the mine: Liriomyza bryoniae

Not included in the key: Liriomyza sonchi

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 1.i.2019