Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cichorium intybus


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria dauci
flower vagrant rarely Noctuidae Schinia cardui
root vagrant Tenebrionidae Opatrum sabulosum
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria cichorii
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
predator Pteromalidae Homoporus fulviventris
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus gemellatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus pratensis
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops kalmii
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus coriaceus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus saltator
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus vulneratus
flower vagrant Miridae Stenotus binotatus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Dichagyris musiva
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ochropleura plecta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polymixis serpentina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Caradrina morpheus
leaf vagrant Brahmaeidae Lemonia dumi
unknown unknown Crambidae Anania testacealis
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macrosteles quadripunctulatus
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo trabeata
stem gall Eriococcidae Rhizococcus devoniensis
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Paraphytoptus intybi
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Lixus bituberculatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
root vagrant Aphididae Trama maritima
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis vandergooti
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cichorii
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
root vagrant Aphididae Trama caudata
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum cichorii
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Aceria cichorii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma cichorii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza puella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pinguis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza penicilla
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cichorii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera nigricornis
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza cichorii
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis cichorii
root collar gall Actinomycetales Rhodococcus fascians
root collar gall Aphididae Aphis intybi
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
flower vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama flavescens
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon mierae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.iv.2023