organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem gall Eriococcidae Rhizococcus devoniensis
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus tergrigorianae
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower borer Tortricidae Phalonidia contractana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Paraphytoptus intybi
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Lixus bituberculatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
root vagrant Aphididae Trama maritima
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis vandergooti
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cichorii
unknown vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon ilka
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum cichorii
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Aceria cichorii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma cichorii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza puella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pinguis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza continua
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza penicilla
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cichorii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera nigricornis
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza cichorii
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis cichorii
root collar gall Actinomycetales Rhodococcus fascians
root collar gall Aphididae Aphis intybi
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Trama caudata
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama radicis
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Acyrthosiphon lactucae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Uroleucon picridis
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon mierae
root vagrant Aphididae Protrama flavescens
flower vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 14.iii.2020