Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Andryala

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Macropternella bicolor
stem borer Noctuidae Sesamia nonagrioides
leaf hidden doubtful Hesperiidae Muschampia proto
unknown unknown Curculionidae Dichromacalles querilhaci
flower hidden Tephritidae Trupanea insularum
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips faurei
unknown unknown Pyralidae Bradyrrhoa marianella
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia laetus
root borer larva Curculionidae Cyphocleonus dealbatus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Forda formicaria
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Uroleucon picridis
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza andryalae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chlorocrepidis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia andryalae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon mierae
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis pernilleae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 24.iv.2022