Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Hieracium lachenalii

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella corcontica
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia hieracii
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Dasineura vulgatiformiae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia pilosellae
flower gall Pterophoridae Hellinsia didactylites
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon obscurum
flower gall Tephritidae Noeeta pupillata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma hieracii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora sanguinea
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes villificus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza hieracii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza hieraciivora
leaf gall doubtful Aphididae Nasonovia compositellae nigra
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf gall Aphididae Nasonovia pilosellae
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis hieracii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 7.viii.2022