Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Sonchus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root collar scale Pseudococcidae Dysmicoccus angustifrons
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pelionella manifecta
root scale Pseudococcidae Peliococcus turanicus
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus pumilus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus tessellatus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus auarita
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus confusus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus cephalotes
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus amplificatus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus merigensis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus curvipes
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus dispar
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus obscurus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus magnificus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus morrisi
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus marmoratus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Sonchiacalles sonchi
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Herpisticus laesicollis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus roudieri
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus estevezi
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus osorio
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Herpisticus gomerensis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus exophthalmus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus fraudulentus
flower hidden Thripidae Isoneurothrips australis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips pillichi
flower hidden Aeolothripidae Melanthrips fuscus
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips setiger
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips hispanicus
leaf vagrant Erebidae Ocnogyna baetica
leaf vagrant Geometridae Rhodometra sacraria
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia villosoviridescens
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Deroplia annulicornis
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eurytetranychus recki
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus ludeni
flower vagrant Noctuidae Schinia cognata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Xylena exsoleta
root borer Tortricidae Celypha rurestrana
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria aetheorrhizae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria sonchi
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria sonchicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria sonchifolia
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Darluca tussilaginis
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria sonchi
leaf leaf spot Plectosphaerellaceae Spermosporina sonchi-oleracei
predator Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia coleosporii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta sonchi
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius ericae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia mejiasi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Caradrina rebeli
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cornutiplusia circumflexa
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Oxycarenus pallens
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius immunis
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Stictopleurus punctatonervosus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Xanthochilus saturnius
flower vagrant Miridae Closterotomus trivialis
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus pratensis
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus norwegicus
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf down doubtful Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia daubei
leaf scale Coccidae Saissetia coffeae
stem scale Margarodidae Icerya purchasi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia maura
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Naenia typica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia bombycina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Axylia putris
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthiola leucaspis
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Polymixis bischoffii
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia suasa
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera bicolorata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Hyppa rectilinea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Agrochola humilis
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lucifuga
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia pustulata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia umbratica
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf vagrant Erebidae Artimelia latreillei
leaf vagrant Brahmaeidae Lemonia philopalus
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia orphnata
unknown unknown Geometridae Eupithecia schuetzeata
unknown unknown Geometridae Eupithecia stertzi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula guancharia
root vagrant Curculionidae Dichromacalles dromedarius
leaf vagrant Tingidae Galeatus scrophicus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Empoasca fabalis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Hauptidia provincialis
stem borer Curculionidae Aphanarthrum aeonii
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips faurei
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips validus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina reducens
leaf vagrant adult Chrysomelidae Neocrepidodera femorata
unknown unknown doubtful Chrysomelidae Cyrtonus fairmairei
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo neobesa
root vagrant younger larva Tortricidae Celypha rufana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acroclita sonchana
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma conterminana
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria badiella
flower hidden Pyralidae Phycitodes albatella
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma obumbratana
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
root borer Tortricidae Celypha rosaceana
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vernalis
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis sambuci
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia stellata
root vagrant Aphididae Trama maritima
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
stem miner doubtful Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cichorii
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heringi
stem miner Agromyzidae Phytoliriomyza arctica
root collar vagrant doubtful Psyllidae Craspedolepta sonchi
unknown vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon ilka
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon scariolae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Chelobremia sublevis
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia schlechtendaliana
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis dilacerata
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis formosa
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces sonchicola
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma crepidicola
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma sonchi
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora sonchi
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria sonchi
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomyces sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bulgarica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Depressariidae Agonopterix arenella
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula obtusata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia sonchina
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Miyagia pseudosphaeria
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus pallidus
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera ruebsaameni
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis sonchi
stem gall Cynipidae Aulacidea follioti
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Trama caudata
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Uroleucon picridis
stem vagrant main Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon mierae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 28.i.2024