Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sonchus arvensis

perennial sow-thistle

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera dysodea
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia pustulata
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lactucae
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia umbratica
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia orphnata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo neobesa
rootvagrantyounger larvaTortricidaeCelypha rufana
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma conterminana
flowerhiddenElachistidaeDepressaria badiella
flowerhiddenPyralidaePhycitodes albatella
flowervagrantPterophoridaeCrombrugghia distans
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma obumbratana
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips nigropilosus
rootborerTortricidaeCelypha rosaceana
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes proletella
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama troglodytes
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia stellata
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia inaequalis
flowervagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon scariolae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea amoena
flowergallCecidomyiidaeChelobremia sublevis
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia schlechtendaliana
flowergallTephritidaeCampiglossa producta
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis dilacerata
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis formosa
flowervagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia cunctata
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces sonchicola
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera xanthii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeCystiphora sonchi
leafgallrarelyEriophyidaeAceria sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bulgarica
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza endiviae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerTephritidaeTrypeta immaculata
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia littoralis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia opizii
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesColeosporium sonchi
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMiyagia pseudosphaeria
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia sonchina
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus pallidus
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza lateralis
stemgallCynipidaeTimaspis sonchi
stemvagrantmainAphididaeUroleucon sonchi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis frangulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 8.ix.2021