Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sonchus arvensis

perennial sow-thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root scale Pseudococcidae Peliococcus turanicus
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus pumilus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips validus
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips hispanicus
leaf leaf spot Plectosphaerellaceae Spermosporina sonchi-oleracei
predator Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia coleosporii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta sonchi
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Oxycarenus pallens
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus pratensis
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia pustulata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia umbratica
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia orphnata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo neobesa
root vagrant younger larva Tortricidae Celypha rufana
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma conterminana
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria badiella
flower hidden Pyralidae Phycitodes albatella
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma obumbratana
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
root borer Tortricidae Celypha rosaceana
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia stellata
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon scariolae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Chelobremia sublevis
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia schlechtendaliana
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis dilacerata
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis formosa
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces sonchicola
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora sonchi
leaf gall rarely Eriophyidae Aceria sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bulgarica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Miyagia pseudosphaeria
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia sonchina
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus pallidus
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis sonchi
stem vagrant main Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 28.i.2024