Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sonchus asper

perennial sow-thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria sonchifolia
leaf leaf spot Plectosphaerellaceae Spermosporina sonchi-oleracei
predator Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia coleosporii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta sonchi
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus norwegicus
leaf down doubtful Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Hauptidia provincialis
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
root borer Tortricidae Celypha rosaceana
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia stellata
root vagrant Aphididae Trama maritima
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
stem miner doubtful Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cichorii
root collar vagrant doubtful Psyllidae Craspedolepta sonchi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia schlechtendaliana
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis formosa
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces sonchicola
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma sonchi
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bulgarica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Miyagia pseudosphaeria
stem gall Cynipidae Aulacidea follioti
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis sonchi
stem vagrant main Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus pallidus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.xii.2022