Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sonchus asper

perennial sow-thistle

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotPlectosphaerellaceaeSpermosporina sonchi-oleracei
predatorMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia coleosporii
leafleaf spotDidymellaceaeAscochyta sonchi
leafvagrantMiridaeClosterotomus norwegicus
leafdowndoubtfulErysiphalesGolovinomyces cichoracearum
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lactucae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeHauptidia provincialis
flowervagrantPterophoridaeCrombrugghia distans
rootborerTortricidaeCelypha rosaceana
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama troglodytes
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia stellata
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama maritima
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
stemminerdoubtfulAgromyzidaeOphiomyia cichorii
root collarvagrantdoubtfulPsyllidaeCraspedolepta sonchi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePemphigus bursarius
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon cichorii
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea amoena
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia schlechtendaliana
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis formosa
flowervagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia beckeri
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia cunctata
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces sonchicola
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma sonchi
leafgallCecidomyiidaeCystiphora sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bulgarica
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza endiviae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia pulicaria
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza marginella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium globosum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia littoralis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia opizii
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesColeosporium sonchi
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMiyagia pseudosphaeria
stemgallCynipidaeAulacidea follioti
stemgallCynipidaeTimaspis sonchi
stemvagrantmainAphididaeUroleucon sonchi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus pallidus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.viii.2022