smooth sow-thistle

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma obumbratana
stem borer Syrphidae Cheilosia vernalis
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Rhizoecidae Ripersiella planetica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia stellata
stem miner Agromyzidae Phytoliriomyza arctica
root collar vagrant doubtful Psyllidae Craspedolepta sonchi
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Chelobremia sublevis
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia schlechtendaliana
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis formosa
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces sonchicola
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora sonchi
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomyces sonchi
leaf miner main Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bulgarica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia littoralis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Miyagia pseudosphaeria
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia sonchina
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus pallidus
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera trigonica
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
stem vagrant main Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon mierae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 23.xii.2019