Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sonchus oleraceus

smooth sow-thistle

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotPlectosphaerellaceaeSpermosporina sonchi-oleracei
predatorMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia coleosporii
leafleaf spotDidymellaceaeAscochyta sonchi
leafvagrantRhopalidaeLiorhyssus hyalinus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia suasa
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera bicolorata
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera dysodea
stemborerCerambycidaeAgapanthiola leucaspis
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia pustulata
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lactucae
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ornatus
leafvagrantBrahmaeidaeLemonia philopalus
leafvagrantErebidaePhragmatobia fuliginosa
leafvagrantTingidaeGaleatus scrophicus
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma obumbratana
stemborerSyrphidaeCheilosia vernalis
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes proletella
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama troglodytes
rootvagrantRhizoecidaeRipersiella planetica
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia stellata
stemminerAgromyzidaePhytoliriomyza arctica
root collarvagrantdoubtfulPsyllidaeCraspedolepta sonchi
systemicvagrantAphididaeProtaphis terricola
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea amoena
flowergallCecidomyiidaeChelobremia sublevis
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia schlechtendaliana
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis formosa
flowervagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia beckeri
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia cunctata
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces sonchicola
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera xanthii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeCystiphora sonchi
leafgallTaphrinalesProtomyces sonchi
leafminermainAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bulgarica
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza endiviae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia pulicaria
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza marginella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia littoralis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia opizii
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesColeosporium sonchi
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMiyagia pseudosphaeria
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia sonchina
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus pallidus
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza lateralis
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ascalonicus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
stemvagrantmainAphididaeUroleucon sonchi
flowervagrantAphididaeUroleucon mierae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.viii.2022