Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Leontodon hispidus

rough hawkbit

synonym: Leontodon protheiformis

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePachyprotasis variegata
rootscalePseudococcidaeAtrococcus cracens
leaf budhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia conspersana
rootvagrantSyrphidaeCheilosia latifrons
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis leontodontis
root collarvagrantAphididaeProtaphis picridicola
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon cichorii
flowergallrarelyTephritidaeTephritis formosa
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritis mariannae
flowerborerTephritidaeTephritis mutabilis
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia inaequalis
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia heringi
root collarvagrantPsyllidaeCraspedolepta sonchi
leafgallPsyllidaeCraspedolepta flavipennis
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowergallTephritidaeCampiglossa producta
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis fallax
flowergallTephritidaeTephritis leontodontis
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces cichoracearum
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera erigerontis-canadensis
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma leontodontis
leafgallCecidomyiidaeCystiphora leontodontis
leafgallTaphrinalesProtomyces kriegerianus
leafgallTaphrinalesProtomycopsis leontodontis
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza dispar
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza marginella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafminerTephritidaeTrypeta immaculata
leafpustuleAlbuginalesPustula obtusata
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesAecidium philippianum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia hispanica
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia leontodontis
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus pratensis
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon leontodontis
flowergallrarelyAphididaeUroleucon hypochoeridis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 23.iv.2020