Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Leontodon hispidus

rough hawkbit

synonym: Leontodon protheiformis

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Charanyca trigrammica
leaf vagrant Erebidae Rhyparia purpurata
leaf vagrant Erebidae Diaphora mendica
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx notata
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis truncata
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips alpester
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis variegata
root scale Pseudococcidae Atrococcus cracens
leaf bud hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia conspersana
root vagrant Syrphidae Cheilosia latifrons
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis leontodontis
root collar vagrant Aphididae Protaphis picridicola
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
flower gall rarely Tephritidae Tephritis formosa
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis mariannae
flower borer Tephritidae Tephritis mutabilis
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heringi
root collar vagrant Psyllidae Craspedolepta sonchi
leaf gall Psyllidae Craspedolepta flavipennis
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis fallax
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis leontodontis
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma leontodontis
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora leontodontis
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomyces kriegerianus
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomycopsis leontodontis
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza dispar
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula obtusata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium philippianum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia hispanica
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia leontodontis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus pratensis
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon leontodontis
flower gall rarely Aphididae Uroleucon hypochoeridis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.ix.2023