organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root vagrant Syrphidae Cheilosia latifrons
flower borer larva Curculionidae Glocianus moelleri
flower borer larva Curculionidae Glocianus fennicus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus tibialis
root borer larva Curculionidae Lixus angustus
root borer larva doubtful Curculionidae Lixus elegantulus
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heringi
root collar vagrant Psyllidae Craspedolepta sonchi
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea stellata
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Tephritidae Tephritis leontodontis
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma leontodontis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria anthocoptes
leaf gall Psyllidae Craspedolepta flavipennis
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomycopsis arnoldii
leaf gall Taphrinales Protomycopsis leontodontis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf pustule Albuginales Pustula obtusata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium philippianum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia hispanica
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia leontodontis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia mayorii-eugenei
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum palustre
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon leontodontis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis leontodontis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.