Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Lactuca

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root collar scale Pseudococcidae Dysmicoccus angustifrons
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus avenae
unknown scale Pseudococcidae Fonscolombia incerta
Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus strigosus
root scale Pseudococcidae Heliococcus radicicola
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus pumilus
root borer Psilidae Chamaepsila nigricornis
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus cribricollis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips reichardti
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia cagani
stem scale Diaspididae Aonidiella aurantii
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oreina intricata
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne javanica
flower vagrant Noctuidae Haemerosia vassilininei
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon bielawskii
root vagrant Hepialidae Hepialus humuli
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Antitype chi
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Chondrostega escobesae
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta mulgedii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria sleumeri
root film Pythiaceae Pythium sylvaticum
systemic film Pythiaceae Pythium tracheiphilum
leaf film Pythiaceae Globisporangium ultimum
systemic film Pythiaceae Pythium uncinulatum
root film Ceratocystidaceae Berkeleyomyces basicola
root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora lactucae-sativae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia lactucosa
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Stemphylium botryosum
leaf leaf spot Microdochiacee Microdochium panattonianum
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta multiformis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lactucina
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria mulgedii
leaf leaf spot Sclerotiniaceae Valdensia heterodoxa
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia minor
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia trifoliorum
leaf leaf spot Glomerellaceae Colletotrichum dematium
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes incertae sedis Asteromella cretica
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lactucae
root film Ceratocystidaceae Thielaviopsis thielavioides
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Passalora scariolae
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Mycocentrospora acerina
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia mulgedii
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
leaf vagrant Acanthosomatidae Elasmucha grisea
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus meridionalis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Haemerosia renalis
leaf pustule Pucciniales Puccinia ankarensis
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia maculosa
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lactucarum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta dianthi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cerastis rubricosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Peridroma saucia
root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis puta
root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis ipsilon
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ochropleura plecta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua pronuba
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia suasa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mamestra brassicae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta trifolii
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia oleracea
flower vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Hecatera weissi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia splendens
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera bicolorata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera buhri
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polymixis xanthomista
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mniotype adusta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra livida
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Hoplodrina ambigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Charanyca ferruginea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Phlogophora meticulosa
leaf vagrant Erebidae Nodaria nodosalis
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia pustulata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lucifuga
flower vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Cucullia umbratica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera exigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania loreyi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant doubtful Brahmaeidae Lemonia philopalus
leaf vagrant Erebidae Amata phegea
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dysauxes ancilla
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dysauxes famula
leaf vagrant Erebidae Spilosoma lubricipeda
flower vagrant Geometridae Mesotype didymata
leaf vagrant doubtful Geometridae Idaea camparia
leaf vagrant Tingidae Galeatus scrophicus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia sohrab
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx atropunctata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macrosteles cristatus
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina graminis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo trabeata
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia salatica
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Pselnophorus heterodactyla
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma conterminana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis pallidana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
flower borer Tortricidae Phalonidia contractana
fruit vagrant Tortricidae Aethes smeathmanniana
unknown borer doubtful Prodoxidae Lampronia rupella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
flower borer Tortricidae Phalonidia gilvicomana
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia actaeae-elymi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza puella
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf miner doubtful Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza foersteri
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
flower borer larva Curculionidae Glocianus distinctus
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
flower vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum polanense
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
flower gall Tephritidae Hypenidium graecum
leaf leaf spot doubtful Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
flower borer Anthomyiidae Botanophila gnava
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera tremblayi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
unknown unknown Agromyzidae Chromatomyia aragonensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia griffithsiana
unknown vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon ilka
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon scariolae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon chondrillae
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon ochropus
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe mayorii var. cicerbitae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula lactucarum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Cystiphora taraxaci
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza endiviae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza huidobrensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza lesinensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza scorzonerae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza serriolae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pinguis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza penicilla
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chondrillae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lactucarum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia minussensis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia mulgedii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza lateralis
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Cynipidae Timaspis phoenixopodos
root borer Pratylenchidae Pratylenchus pratensis
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant Aphididae Trama troglodytes
root vagrant Aphididae Trama caudata
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon lactucae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus cymbalariae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum alpinum
flower vagrant doubtful Aphididae Uroleucon picridis
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon murale
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 21.i.2024