Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca alpina

alpine blue-sow-thistle

synonym: Cicerbita alpina; Mulgedium alpinum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oreina intricata
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia mulgedii
flower vagrant Geometridae Mesotype didymata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo trabeata
unknown borer doubtful Prodoxidae Lampronia rupella
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
flower vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum polanense
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia griffithsiana
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe mayorii var. cicerbitae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chondrillae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia mulgedii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum alpinum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 7.x.2023